On PEI, there are a number of small-scale farmers who are producing artisan-quality food products. Produced on small-scale, it allows the producer to focus on quality and on producing products, or varieties of products, that larger-scale producers might not. I recently paid a visit to the Ferme Isle Saint-Jean in Rustico PEI.
Owned and operated by Deirdre and Gabriel Mercier, the new farmers bravely forged ahead in 2015 with dreams of becoming cheesemakers using sheep’s milk. When Deirdre’s family home and small hobby farm became available for sale, the couple decided the time was right to pursue their entrepreneurship dreams in Deirdre’s home community of Rustico. Gabriel attends to the day-to-day farm operations and the yogurt and cheese making while Deirdre looks after the farm’s bookkeeping.
Currently, the Merciers are milking 104 sheep that produce, on average, between 1 – 1½ litres of milk each a day. They have two breeds of sheep. The first, East Friesian dairy sheep, originate in northern Germany and are, according to Gabriel, the highest milk-producing sheep. The second breed, the Lacaune, are a dairying sheep breed originating in southern France. The Lacaunes produce less milk than the East Friesians but their milk has a higher fat and protein content.
The farm’s new milking parlour allows for 24 sheep to be milked at once.
Gabriel is new to a career in farming having spent nearly 10 years in military service. He spent time on a work term on a farm in Quebec followed by a month working in a cheese plant – Nouvelle France Fromagerie – and has taken a course in cheesemaking in Quebec.
Currently, the farm is producing yogurt and cheese by transporting the milk to a cheese factory in Mont Carmel, PEI, where Gabriel goes to make the products. Some cheese is made in a facility in New Brunswick that has an aging room for the cheese, some of which takes time to ripen. In addition, the farm also has lamb sausages available which are made for them by Island Taylored Meats.
When asked what the biggest challenges are to sheep farming in PEI, Gabriel says operating costs, labour involved, and the long days and 24/7 commitment as the sheep are milked twice a day during lactation for the first 90 days after giving birth then once a day afterwards.
Particularly during lambing seasons, the days can be very long as the lambs start arriving in February when it is cold on PEI and so attention is required to ensure they quickly get their first drink and are kept warm.
I love the sentiment captured in the photo below of a mama with her baby lamb!
Despite the work and commitment, the Merciers find great satisfaction in sheep farming. Gabriel says he has a passion for cheesemaking and enjoys taking a raw product and converting it into something else like yogurt and cheese. The other bonus is he gets to see more of his young family than he would if he worked off the farm.
The three cheeses presently made from the farm’s sheep milk are Alexis Doiron, Blue d’acadie, and Patrick Mercier. The Alexis Doiron, a firm cheese that is not ripened or aged, is made by Gabriel at the plant in Mont Carmel. Gabriel classes this as a table cheese that he particularly likes grated on eggs. He says this cheese is grillable and is very good barbequed because it doesn’t actually melt. He also suggests it can be grated on pizza as well.
The Blue d’acadie is made in a federally-inspected plant with an aging room in New Brunswick. It is a semi-firm ripened blue cheese that is suberb on burgers or steak, used in a sauce, or as an addition to a cheese tray.
The newest cheese, Patrick Mercier, is made with unpasteurized sheep’s milk and aged at least four months at the same plant in New Brunswick where the Blue d’acadie is made.
Gabriel produces 200 – 500ml jars of yogurt each week. This yogurt is 100% sheep’s milk plus culture and is available unflavored. Add some pure maple syrup and toss some granola on top for a special treat or top it on your favorite cereal along with some fresh fruit.
What about all the wool on those sheep? The sheep are sheered once a year, in November, which allows them to grow back a wool coat before the really cold weather strikes PEI. The wool is transported to MacAusland’s Woolen Mills in Bloomfield, PEI, where it is turned into yarn and woven into blankets.
This past summer, the Merciers opened a retail shop on the farm where the cheeses, yogurt, and lamb sausages can be purchased at source and where customers can enjoy some samples of the yogurt and cheeses. During the winter months, the shop is open by appointment only.
The farm’s products are currently available in several locations including Riverview Country Market, Kent Street Market, Brighton Clover Farm (all in Charlottetown), as well as at the Charlottetown Farmers Market , the Farmed Market and Craft Butchery and the Summerside Farmers Market, both in Summerside, and Gallant’s Country Market in Rustico. Several Island restaurants, including those in the Rustico area, are serving yogurt and cheeses from the farm as part of their menus.
Winter 2015 has been a true old-fashioned winter for PEI. Blizzard after blizzard has left the Island buried under mountains of snow. In fact, more than 500cm has fallen – that’s over 16 feet of snow this winter!
As I write this posting in early April, most of the snow, unfortunately, is still around (and more keeps accumulating) so it’s going to be a long time before PEI sees any plants growing outside in the rich red soil for which our Island is known. However, that doesn’t mean there aren’t vegetables growing on PEI – even in the dead of winter.
Between tunnels of snow banks (some of which were more than twice the height of my car) and sometimes through side roads barely one lane wide in places, I made my way to Spring Valley to visit the Schurmans who operate a large greenhouse where they grow organic vegetables for sale year-round. In fact, if you live in Atlantic Canada and shop at Sobeys and/or the Atlantic Superstore, you have access to their Atlantic Grown Organics brand organically-grown tomatoes and cucumbers because both stores carry produce from the Schurman greenhouse.
So, this year, while I’m not going south, I did spend an afternoon with Krista and Marc Schurman in their greenhouse which almost seemed tropical!
Spring Valley is a rural community that is located just outside the town of Kensington on the Island’s north side. The Schurmans, former livestock producers, built the greenhouse in 2001 when they made the decision to diversify their farming operation from livestock to vegetable growing. The Schurman greenhouse is home to close to one (1) acre of produce grown year round. Marc, a third generation farmer, has a degree in plant science from the Nova Scotia Agricultural College (NSAC) in Truro, Nova Scotia. From the time he was a wee lad, he has had a keen interest in growing vegetables so his career choice was a logical one. His wife, Krista, has a degree in animal science, also from NSAC. Farming is clearly in the blood of the Schurman couple and it is evident from chatting with them that farming is their passion and they are committed to producing quality food for market.
In 2006, the Schurmans, who market their produce under the label “Atlantic Grown Organics”, became a 100% organic greenhouse operation.
Farming organically is not without its challenges since it operates differently than conventional farming. One of the biggest challenges is to create a mini-ecosystem versus using chemicals to control for insect pests and plant disease. Insect packets (like those in the photograph below) are hung on the vines of the plants throughout the greenhouse. These packets release beneficial insects that, essentially, eat the bad insects that can destroy plant leaves and vegetables.
To simulate a natural environment, every six weeks, new hives of bumblebees are introduced into the greenhouse.
The bees buzz around, doing their job to pollinate the tomatoes. New hives are brought into the greenhouse every six weeks so that, as the hives age, there will always be young productive bees available to carry the load of pollinating thousands of flowers every week. Earthworms are used in the plant pots to keep the soil loose – essentially, they work and till the soil.
While greenhouse farming means more control can, in some respects, be exerted over growing conditions, there is a challenge to constantly balance the humidity and ventilation in the greenhouse as too much humidity can breed plant disease. The greenhouse relies on a computer system to indicate when there is too much humidity, at which time it tells the greenhouse roof to open slightly to let in some ventilation. When the humidity is once again balanced, the computer tells the roof to close.
Large pipes filled with hot water circulate throughout the entire greenhouse keeping the plants toasty warm and providing optimal temperature for plant growth.
A wood waste burner heats the water and a back-up generator provides assurance of a heat source should there be a loss of electricity. It wouldn’t take many hours without electricity in a PEI winter storm, for example, for the farm’s entire crop of producing plants and tiny seed plantings to be destroyed.
The series of hot water pipes also function as a sort of railway track for a cart and workers to move between the rows of plant pots so the plants can be pruned and harvested. The farm functions with a staff of three full-time employees and the couple’s three children help with picking the tomatoes from the vines.
Each plant pot is individually hooked up to the water sprinkling system that is triggered by readings from a weather station on the greenhouse roof as watering is measured by the amount of natural sunlight.
These water tanks are not your ordinary watering cans!
The main business of the greenhouse operation is to produce organic tomatoes and cucumbers for wholesale to Sobeys and the Atlantic Superstore in Atlantic Canada.
However, the Schurmans also direct market their produce at both the Charlottetown and Summerside Farmers Markets. Here (in addition to the tomatoes and cucumbers), you may also find special treats like fresh greenhouse-grown strawberries in winter along with lettuce, kale, herbs, peppers, beets, green onions, and even eggplant, grown especially for their Farmers Market clientele.
From early spring to late fall, the Schurmans also have a vegetable stand at the farm gate on Route 104 in Spring Valley.
The Schurmans find great satisfaction from their greenhouse operation. They say that producing big boxes of fresh, organically-grown, red tomatoes in the dead of winter on PEI, when there is little if any vegetation growing elsewhere, is deeply satisfying.
They also find it gratifying to connect with regular customers each Saturday at the local Farmers Markets as this opportunity provides them with feedback on their produce and appreciation from customers seeking good quality organic produce that is locally produced year round.
I believe it is always good when consumers can meet and connect with those who work hard to locally produce our food. So, if you are lucky enough to live in PEI, you can meet the Schurmans, face-to-face, on Saturdays at the Farmers Markets. Otherwise, be sure to look for the purple label “Atlantic Grown Organics” on the organic tomatoes and cucumbers when shopping at Sobeys and/or the Atlantic Superstores in Atlantic Canada. Buying these Island products not only supports local farmers and helps them to be sustainable operations but you’ll know you are buying quality, safe, fresh organic produce.
I think, if I had been working inside this greenhouse this year, I would hardly have noticed it was even winter (well, maybe not until I stepped outdoors)!
For more information on the Schurman Family Farm, visit their website.
The recipe in which I have chosen to feature tomatoes and cucumbers from the Schurman Family Farm is a colorful pasta salad with herb dressing. While it is always important to use quality fresh ingredients in any recipe, it is doubly important when making salads because this is where the raw veggies star and you really taste their flavour.
I couldn’t have gotten vegetables any more fresh than these that were just picked off the vines in the greenhouse.
The quality and flavour of olive oil and balsamic vinegar is also important in the salad dressing. For this reason, I have used products from the Liquid Gold and All Things Olive store here in Charlottetown, PEI. You can use any olive oil and balsamic vinegar – either flavored or plain – that you wish; however, it will obviously change the flavour of the dressing. For this recipe, I chose to use the Wild Mushroom and Sage Olive Oil which I paired with a Honey Ginger Balsamic Vinegar.
You can use any kind of bow tie pasta for this recipe.
I’ve chosen to use colored Durum wheat semolina from Italy because I love the tri-colored pasta which makes a colorful salad!
8.8 oz (250g) bowtie pasta
1½ tsp cooking oil
2 tbsp onion soup mix
2 cups coarsely chopped English cucumber
1 cup diced tomatoes or halved cherry/grape tomatoes
½ cup chopped red onion
2 tbsp sliced black olives (optional)
3½ oz cubed feta cheese
1½ – 2 tbsp shredded Parmesan, Romano, and Asiago cheese mix
Fresh parsley (optional)
Cook pasta, for length of time and in amount of boiling water and salt indicated on package, adding the oil and onion soup mix to the cooking process. Drain pasta, rinse in cold water, and allow to cool completely.
Cut ends off small cucumber and slice in half, horizontally. Cut cucumber into ¼ inch pieces.
Coarsely chop the tomatoes and red onion.
Place pasta into large bowl and add the cucumber, tomatoes, and onion. Toss to mix, being careful not to tear pasta. Drizzle with just enough dressing to coat all ingredients. Cover and refrigerate for 1-2 hours to allow flavours to mix.
At time of serving, mix in olives and add more dressing if needed/desired. Transfer to serving bowl. Sprinkle with cheeses and fresh parsley.
6 tbsp olive oil
2 tbsp balsamic vinegar
1½ tsp Dijon mustard
1½ tbsp sugar
½ tsp Italian seasoning
½ tsp celery seed
Pinch dried dillweed
2 garlic cloves, minced
Salt and pepper, to taste
Mix all ingredients in glass jar. Cover jar tightly with lid and shake jar vigorously to fully mix and incorporate all ingredients. Refrigerate until use. Remove from refrigerator to allow dressing to come to room temperature (5-7 minutes). Shake jar to mix dressing, then drizzle over salad.
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Today, I’m taking you with me to visit a new bakery in Cape Traverse, PEI, just a stone’s throw from the Confederation Bridge in Borden-Carleton.
Artisan bakers Rémi Boucher and Stéphanie St-Aubin have been regular vendors at the Summerside Farmers’ Market for the past year. They’ve now taken the leap of constructing an extension on to their home on the Wharf Road. But, it’s not just an ordinary extension to house a bakery. Rather, it takes “bricks and mortar” to a whole new level as this bakery features a wood-fired brick oven. So, let’s meet Rémi and Stéphanie and find out about their bakery.
Rémi was born in Summerside when his father was stationed at the now closed military base. While the family moved away when Rémi was about two years old and he grew up in Southern Ontario, Rémi has visited the Island over the years. Recently, the call of his birthplace drew him, his wife, Stéphanie, and their three children ages 15, 12, and 7, to the Island to live. Rémi, who has a degree in aircraft mechanics and a Masters in English literature has worked in various jobs throughout his varied career but says his passion is baking, a passion he has held since childhood. As Rémi says, he’s good at several things but passionate about only a few, one of which is his love of artisan baking. This is a passion shared by Stéphanie who grew up in Quebec and who has a bachelor’s degree in French literature. She, too, has had a passion for baking since early childhood.
Six years ago, after losing close family members to cancer, the couple began questioning ingredient content in foods and started taking a closer look at the relationship between food and health. As they looked at lists of ingredients in commercially-produced breads, they decided it was time to start making their own bread. Their bread making began with a cookbook, La leçon de boulangerie, written by French chef and baker Richard Bertinet who runs a cookery school in Bath, England. The couple started making bread using Bertinet’s method. To see if there was interest in their bread, they started first by baking and giving the bread away. Then they started selling it via taking orders for home delivery as a way to test out baking on a high volume basis.
Three years ago, realizing they were on to something with their artisan bread, the family travelled across Canada from one coast to the other looking for a new place to call home and for the perfect place to start a bakery business. The lure of PEI was strong so one and half years later they embarked on a house-hunting trip to PEI which led them to the property in Cape Traverse. Rémi says the nearby beach was a selling point but so too was the convenient location between Charlottetown and Summerside and its close proximity to the weekly Farmers’ Market which would be their first place at which to sell their bread and other baked goods on PEI. In addition, Rémi says there is a year-round market of local clientele in proximity to Cape Traverse which is located in the middle of the Island along the South shore.
From the outset, the couple set up their bakery to be a family-run business. While Rémi is the bread maker, Stéphanie makes some amazing French pastries and other sweet treats! Working out of their own home property allows the couple to home school their three children who also get to see, first hand, how a bakery and business operates.
Rémi is an artisan bread baker which means three things. First, his products are all hand made – there is no electric mixer involved. All breads are made by hand. Second, the breads are traditional European hearth style which means no bread pans are used. Loaves are either round or oval-shaped.
Third, the oven used to bake the products is a wood-fired brick oven.
The oven was specially built for the bakery by Red Clay Construction from Mt Vernon, near Murray River, PEI. The oven heats to very high temperatures and holds its heat.
I visited the bakery on an afternoon when Rémi lit the wood fire (using 3’ to 4’ lengths of spruce) in the oven to use for his next day’s baking. As he says, “today’s four-hour fire is tomorrow’s full day of baking”.
When I arrived early the next morning, Rémi had cleaned out any remaining ash left from the wood fire.
He then filled two pans with water to place in the oven to create steam for the bread baking. The oven temperature was about 500°F by this time and was producing a strong mellow heat.
This five-foot deep oven has the capacity to bake about 20 loaves of bread at a time.
Rémi makes several kinds of artisan bread (sourdough based) that include Acadia Sourdough, Chili-Cheddar, Olive-Rosemary, Spelt Sourdough, Coffee Raisin Rye, Island Red (made with Gahan Island Red Beer), and Sourdough Baguettes.
According to Rémi, the sourdough bread he makes is a more airy bread than traditional loaf bread and, because it is a more wet dough that is hand-mixed, it has more open crumb with uneven bubbles (or what I would refer to as “air holes”) in the bread’s texture. This type of bread falls into the slow food movement category because it takes more time to produce it as it must have significant rest time for its enzymes to break down.
Rémi says that sourdough breads are very filling and, after consuming them, one is not left feeling hungry.
Rémi explains that, apart from the texture, sourdough bread has different characteristics from other types of bread and should be treated differently. First, is the absence of fat, milk, and sugar. He claims fat content in bread shortens its shelf life, causing it to dry out faster. Second, with artisan breads, Rémi advises against storing them in plastic bags because that can cause breads to become moldy. Instead, he recommends they be stored in paper bags or simply wrapped in a cloth. Third, the bread is suitable for different uses as it ages. For example, on the day it is baked, the bread can be eaten fresh. On day two, it is best toasted, and on the third day (assuming there is any left over), it is suitable for French toast.
But, this bakery is not just about bread.
The couple also make croissants, pies, sticky buns, various French pastries, éclairs, and old-world style artisan pizzas.
The sourdough and olive oil-based pizzas are baked in an 800°F to 900°F oven fueled by a hardwood fire. This is what is called live fire cooking because the oven can bake a pizza in less than 2 minutes! These are not your typical meat, tomato sauce, and mozzarella cheese type pizzas. Look for new and unique flavour combinations that include, for example, pesto and walnut; crimini; roasted pepper and feta; pear and camembert; and fig and black garlic. Rémi says his Italian-style pizzas follow the “Rule of Three” – three ingredients only – i.e., each pizza should have sauce, cheese, and one other ingredient.
When possible, the bakery uses local and organic products. For example, the majority of the raw product for the stone ground organic flour used in their products is grown by Barnyard Organics in Freetown, PEI, and milled at Speerville Four Mill in New Brunswick. The pork products for the pizzas come from Ranald MacFarlane’s farm in nearby Fernwood. The black garlic comes from Eureka Garlic near Kensington. The tomatoes for the homemade tomato sauce for pizzas come from Atlantic Organics in Kensington.
The bakery is currently using between 80-100 kilos of flour a week to meet demand which continues to grow. This summer, in addition to the Saturday morning Summerside Farmers’ Market, the couple also sold their products at the Farmers’ Market in Stanley Bridge and in a couple of nearby local stores. As well, Rémi also fills special orders like, for example, an order for 100 croissants on the day I visited the bakery. In addition, the bakery also has arrangements to supply some Island restaurants and food vendors with breads.
When asked what the greatest challenge is to running the bakery, Rémi says his challenge is in achieving an acceptable work/life balance between filling orders and raising a family. He says he gets great satisfaction each time a perfect croissant or loaf of bread comes out of the oven or when he hears positive feedback on his pizzas. The couple say that their greatest satisfaction is knowing they are preparing good organic food to nourish the body and soul and they enjoy bringing good food to people.
Wondering what the “fifth ingredient” stands for in the bakery’s name? Rémi says there are four basic ingredients in his bread – flour, water, yeast, and salt. The fifth ingredient is love. That’s the ingredient that can only come from someone who has found his true passion and calling. Spend time with Rémi and Stéphanie and it is evident they have a true passion for their artisan baking.
Visit their Saturday morning booth at the Summerside Farmers’ Market and watch as their regular customers flock to the booth to pick up their favourite breads. It’s best to get to the market early because the couple say their products sell out quickly.
The bakery is located at 114 Wharf Road, off Route 10, in Cape Traverse, PEI. For more information and to inquire about times the bakery is open and when pizzas will be in the oven, call 902-729-2059 or join The Fifth Ingredient’s Facebook page.
I took a loaf of the round Island Red bread from The Fifth Ingredient Bakery, and turned it into a sandwich loaf. There is no specific recipe for this sandwich loaf but you will need olive oil, tomato pesto, about 60g each of two different kinds of your favorite cold cuts (I used turkey and Black Forest ham), lettuce, a couple of kinds of cheese slices (I used Havarti and Provolone), mustard, and a couple of your favorite sandwich vegetables (I used tomato and cucumber).
Begin by cutting a thin slice off the top of the loaf. Then remove most of the bread leaving about 3/4″ to 1″ around the sides and on the bottom. Reserve the removed bread for other uses such as bread crumbs for poultry stuffing.
With a soft, pliable brush, apply a thin coating of olive oil (I used Liquid Gold’s Herbes de Provence) over entire inside shell of the loaf. Follow with a brushed-on light layer of tomato pesto.
Add the layer of shaved turkey followed by a layer of lettuce and a slice of cheese.
Next, add the layer of ham, mustard to taste, and a layer of sliced tomatoes.
Finally, add the second cheese slice, sliced cucumber, and another layer of lettuce.
Brush olive oil over the little bread cover that had earlier been removed from the loaf and re-position it on the loaf.
Wrap loaf as tightly as possible in plastic wrap and place in refrigerator for at least two hours before cutting into four wedges and serving.
Plate and serve with your favorite salad and/or potato chips.
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